Why in News?
There is a need to create mechanisms to calculate our actual forest cover and natural wealth, which should form the basis for a forest policy.
FACTS FOR PRELIMS
Biodiversity Management Committee
The Biological Diversity Act, 2002, calls for setting up a Biodiversity Management Committee in each local body. The Committee will prepare People’s Biodiversity Registers (PRBs), with tribals as members or people living in natural areas not classified legally as forest. The Registers entail a complete documentation of biodiversity in the area — plants, food sources, wildlife, medicinal sources, etc. They are meant to enable the creation of local biodiversity funds for conservation, and aid in decision-making.
A good PBR will not just be a powerful text, it can also help to trace how habitats are changing, and to understand and estimate parts of our forests. Being a bottom-up exercise, it is also a means of understanding the overlap of cultural and natural biodiversity.
The Biological Diversity Act
India enacted Biological Diversity Act in 2002 for giving effect to the provisions of the CBD. The objective of this act is to regulate the access to genetic resources and protection of biodiversity. This act provides for the establishment of statutory bodies such as-
i)National Biodiversity Authority -All foreign nationals require approval from NBA for obtaining Biological Resources from India and all Indian individuals/entities are required to seek NBA approval before transferring knowledge / research and material to foreigners. Prior approval of NBA before applying for any kind of IPR based on research conducted on biological material and or associated knowledge obtained from India.
ii)State Biodiversity Board -To advise state governments on matters of biodiversity conservation and to regulate commercial use of bio-resources in the state by Indians.
iii)National Biodiversity Fund– The money from this fund is used to benefit the claimers and promotion of conservation and socio-economic development in source areas.
Convention on Biodiversity is a legally binding multilateral treaty. The Convention has three main goals including-
i)The conservation of biological diversity (or biodiversity);
ii)The sustainable use of its components; and
iii)The fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising from genetic resources.