Intellectual Property Rights

Why in news?

The global sales of the world’s best-selling prescription drug, Humira, continue to grow even after the expiry of the patent over its main ingredient, adalimumab, a biologic used for the treatment of arthritis. By 2020, AbbVieInc, makers of Humira, expects its sales to touch $21 billion — a figure that will surpass India’s pharmaceutical exports for that year.

FACTS FOR PRELIMS

INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS

Intellectual Property Rights (IPRs) are legal rights, which result from intellectual invention, innovation and discovery in the industrial, scientific, literary and artistic fields. These rights entitle an individual or group to the moral and economic rights of creators in their creation.

COMPULSORY LICENSING

A compulsory license provides that the owner of a patent or copyright licenses the use of their rights against a payment. This payment is either set by law or determined through some form of arbitration

PRIMARY AND SECONDARY PATENTS

Patents on active ingredients are referred to as primary patents

In later phases of the drug development, patents are filed on other aspects of active ingredients such as different dosage forms, formulations, production methods etc

These patents are referred to as secondary patents

SOURCE – THE HINDU.