Why in news?

The year 2017 will likely be among the three warmest years on global record, according to the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) the first 11 months of 2017 were the third warmest on record, behind 2016 and 2015.

2017 may also be the warmest year without an El Nino — a climate phenomenon that causes global temperatures to shoot up


El Nino

El Nino is an oscillation of the ocean-atmosphere system in the tropical Pacific having important consequences for weather around the globe

El Nino is the warm phase of the El Nino Southern Oscillation (commonly called ENSO) and is associated with a band of warm ocean water that develops in the central and east-central equatorial Pacific (between approximately the International Date Line and 120°W), including off the Pacific coast of South America

El Nino is accompanied by high air pressure in the western Pacific and low air pressure in the eastern Pacific

The cool phase of ENSO is called “La Nina” with SST in the eastern Pacific below average and air pressures high in the eastern and low in western Pacific.

World Meteorological Organization (WMO)

The World Meteorological Organization (WMO) is an intergovernmental organization with a membership of 191 Member States and Territories

It originated from the International Meteorological Organization (IMO), which was founded in 1873

Established by the ratification of the WMO Convention on 23 March 1950, WMO became the specialised agency of the United Nations for meteorology (weather and climate), operational hydrology and related geophysical sciences

Its supreme body is the World Meteorological Congress